Study of the genus Euphorbia and importance of its species in Iran with emphasis on biodiversity and their conservation status

Document Type : Systematics and Biodiversity of Plants


Research Assistant Prof., Department of Botany, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran



Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) with more than 2000 species is the second largest giant genus distributed throughout the continent except the Arctic. Iran with four subgenera, 19 sections, three subsections, and 93 species is the second richest country after Turkey and one of the most important biodiversity centers in west Asia. Iran, is the richest concentration of endemic and subendemic Euphorbia species among West Asian countries with 21 and 33 species, respectively. Four northern provinces of Iran viz. Mazandaran, Khorasan, Alborz, and Eastern Azarbaijan, are the most diverse ones with 30, 27, 26, and 26 species, respectively. The lowest diversity of the genus with six and eight species occur in Qom and Bushehr provinces, respectively. The highest number of endemics was observed in Esfahan and Fars with eight and seven species, respectively, followed by Kerman, Khorasan and Mazandaran provinces with five species each. There is no endemics in Qom and Kermanshah provinces. All endemic and subendemic species in Iran were evaluated by the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Of the 60 known evaluated species at the country level, 27 species was classified under threatened categories including, CR, EN, and VU with nine species each. The 33 remaining species were considered as NT and LC with three and 30 species, respectively.


Article Title [فارسی]

بررسی جنس فرفیون و اهمیت گونه‌های آن در ایران با تاکید بر تنوع زیستی و جایگاه حفاظتی آن‌ها

Author [فارسی]

  • امیرحسین پهلوانی
استادیار پژوهش بخش تحقیقات رستنی‌ها، مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

فرفیون با بیش از 2000 گونه به عنوان دومین ابرجنس گیاهی در سرتاسر خشکی‌های کره زمین به غیر از مناطق قطبی پراکنش دارد. ایران با چهار زیرجنس، 19 بخش، سه زیربخش و 93 گونه یکی از مراکز تنوع زیستی و پس از ترکیه غنی‌ترین کشور در منطقه غرب آسیا برای این جنس محسوب می‌شود. همچنین، ایران با 21 گونه انحصاری و 33 گونه نیمه‌انحصاری بیشترین تعداد گونه‌های انحصاری را در منطقه در خود جای داده است. بالاترین تنوع گونه‌ای این جنس در ایران به ترتیب در استان‌های مازندران (30 گونه)، خراسان (27 گونه)، البرز و آذربایجان‌شرقی (هر یک با 26 گونه) می‌باشد. کم‌ترین تنوع گونه‌ای این جنس به ترتیب در استان‌های قم (شش گونه) و بوشهر (هشت گونه) می‌باشد. بیشترین تنوع گونه‌های انحصاری به ترتیب در استان‌های اصفهان و فارس با هشت و هفت گونه و سپس کرمان، خراسان و مازندران هر یک با پنج گونه مشاهده شده در حالی که در دو استان قم و کرمانشاه، گونه انحصاری گزارش نشده است. ارزیابی جایگاه حفاظتی 60 گونه انحصاری، نیمه‌انحصاری و کمیاب در سطح کشور، 30 گونه در رتبه حداقل نگرانی (LC)، سه گونه در مرتبه نزدیک تهدید (NT)، نه گونه در مرتبه آسیب‌پذیر (VU)، نه گونه در جایگاه خطر انقراض (EN) و نه گونه در بحران انقراض (CR) را نشان داد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • علف‌های هرز
  • فرفیونیان
  • گیاهان دارویی
  • گیاهان زینتی
  • گیاهان سمی
  • Euphorbia
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Volume 23, Issue 1 - Serial Number 63
September 2022
Pages 59-78
  • Receive Date: 24 May 2022
  • Revise Date: 11 July 2022
  • Accept Date: 16 July 2022
  • First Publish Date: 26 July 2022