Nectary structure and its taxonomic significance in the genus Matthiola

Document Type : Systematics and Biodiversity of Plants


1 Assistant Prof., Research Division of Natural Resources, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center (AREEO), Shahrekord, Iran

2 Prof., Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran 1571914911, Iran

3 Prof., Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O. Box 13185–116, Tehran, Iran

4 Prof., Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran



Nectary morphology of Matthiola species (Brassicaceae) in the Flora Iranica area was examined using a stereomicroscope to evaluate its systematic significance and assess infrageneric relationships. The study demonstrated that, most characters of the nectaries were constant among different populations of a given species and were taxonomically useful in the delimitation of species, and their grouping. However, nectary morphology was variable in some species. Reliable diagnostic features included; type and number of nectaries, morphology of lateral nectary, presence vs. absence, length, and distance of ramifications extending of lateral nectaries. The type and number of nectaries were useful in grouping of species. Three basic types of nectaries were present in the genus of which two lunar-shaped nectaries were predominated. The type and number of nectaries were unique in Matthiola alyssifolia and M. longipetala. The nectar structure was usually constant among individuals of different populations of polymorphic species of M. chenopodiifolia, M. revolute, and M. longipetala.


Article Title [فارسی]

ساختار بافت نوشجای و اهمیت آرایه‌شناختی آن در جنس چلیپا

Authors [فارسی]

  • امین زراعتکار 1
  • فرخ قهرمانی‌نژاد 2
  • مصطفی اسدی 3
  • احمدرضا خسروی 4
1 استادیار پژوهش بخش منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شهرکرد، ایران
2 استاد گروه علوم گیاهی، دانشکده علوم زیستی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران 1571914911، ایران
3 استاد پژوهش مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران
4 استاد گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

ریخت‌شناسی ساختار بافت نوشجای در جنس چلیپا (Matthiola) متعلق به کلمیان در محدوده فلورا ایرانیکا با استفاده از استریومیکروسکوپ به منظور درک ارزش سیستماتیکی و روابط فروجنسی آن مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در این مطالعه، مشخص شد که بیشتر ویژگی‌های این بافت در بین جمعیت‌های یک گونه ثابت ولی بین گونه‌های مختلف این جنس متنوع هستند. ویژگی‌های قابل اتکا عبارتند بودند از: نوع و تعداد نوشجای‌ها، شکل نوشجای کناری، حضور یا فقدان، طول و فاصله ضمایم نوشجای کناری. در بین این ویژگی‌ها نوع و تعداد نوشجای در ارایه یک گروه‌بندی مفید هستند. سه نوع نوشجای در جنس مذکور دیده شد که ساختار آن‌ها در بیشتر گونه‌ها به صورت دو نوشجای قَمری شکل بود. Matthiola alyssifolia و M. longipetala از نظر نوع و تعداد نوشجای بین گونه‌ها منحصر به فرد بودند. همچنین، شکل این بافت در بین افراد جمعیت­های مختلف گونه­های چندریختی در M. longipetala، M. revoluta و M. chenopodiifolia نسبتا یکسان بود.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • انواع نوشجای
  • چلیپاییان
  • رده‌بندی
  • ریخت­شناسی
  • غده شهد
  • نوشجای گلی
Al-Shehbaz, I.A. 2010. Brassicaceae Brunett. Pp. 269–347. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds), Flora of North America and North Mexico. Vol 7. New York and Oxford University Press, New York.
Al-Shehbaz, I.A. 1994. Petroravenia (Brassicaceae), a new genus from Argentina. Novon 4: 191–196.
Al-Shehbaz, I.A. & Barriera, G. 2019. Typification of Edmond Boissier’s Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) names enumerated in Flora Orientalis. Boissiera 72: 1–192. [].
Al-Shehbaz, I.A, Mummenhoff, K. & Appel, O. 2002. Cardaria, Coronopus and Stroganowia are united with Lepidium (Brassicaceae). Novon 12: 5–11.
Al-Shehbaz, I.A., Yue, J., & Sun, H. 2004. Shangrilaia (Brassicaceae), a new genus from China. Novon 14: 271–274.
Al-Shehbaz, 2017. Five New Species of Lepidium (Brassicaceae): L. pabotii (Iran), L. arequipa (Peru), and L. lapazianum, L. linearilobum, and L. stephan-beckii (Bolivia). Novon 25: 403–413.
Al-Shehbaz, I.A. 1973. The biosystematics of the genus Thelypodium (Cruciferae). Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. 204: 3–148.
Avetisyan, V.E. 1979. Characteristics of variation of the form of the lateral nectaries in Arabis. Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii 32: 582–585 (In Russian).
Bayer, A. 1905. Beiträge zur systematischen Gliederung der Cruciferen. Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt 18: 119–180.
Bernardello, G. 2007. A systematic survey of floral nectaries. Pp. 19–128. In: Nicolson, S.W., Nepi, M. & Pacini, E. (eds), Nectaries and Nectar. Springer, Dordrecht.
Clemente Munoz, M. & Hernandez Bermejo, J.E. 1978. El aparato nectarigeno en la tribu Brassiceae (Cruciferae). Anales del Jardin Botanico Madrid 35: 279–296.
Conti, P. 1900. Les espèces du genre Matthiola. Mémoires de l'Herbier Boissier 18: 1–86.
Davis, P.H. & Heywood, V.H. 1963. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.
Davis, A.R., Fowke, L.C., Sawhney, V.K. & Low, N.H. 1996. Floral nectar secretion and ploidy in Brassica rapa and B. napus (Brassicaceae). II. Quantified variability of nectary structure and function in rapid-cycling lines. Annals of Botany 77(3): 223–234.
Davis, A.R., Sawhney, V.K., Fowke, L.C. & Low, N.H. 1994. Floral nectar secretion and ploidy in Brassica rapa and B. napus (Brassicaceae). Nectary size and nectar carbohydrate production and composition. Apidologie 25: 602–614.
Deng, Y. & Hu, Z. 1995. The Comparative Morphology of the Floral Nectaries of Cruciferae. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 33(3): 209–220.
Dvořák, F. & Uhliřová, V. 1966. Variability of the nectaries of the genus Turritis. Österreichische botanische Zeitschrift 114: 1–3.
Dvořák, F. 1968. A contribution to the study of the genus Clausia Korn.-Tr. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 72: 559–565.
Dvořák, F. 1970. Some results of the study of the Lunaria L. genus. Biologia (Bratisla) 25: 723–730.
German, D.A. 2019. Nomenclatural notes on Cruciferae. Turczaninowia 22(4): 210–219. [ view/7197/5948]
Jafri, S.M.H. 1973. Brassicaceae. In: Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds), Flora of West Pakistan, Vol. 55. University of Karachi, Karachi. 308 pp.
Janchen, E. 1942. Das System der Cruciferen. Öesterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 91: 1–18.
Kenfack, D., Tindo, M. & Gueye, M. 2014. Extranuptial nectaries in Carapa Aubl. (Meliaceae-Cedreloideae). Adansonia 36(2): 335–349.
Khatri, K.S. 1988. Studies in the Caucasian species of Cardamine L. (Cruciferae). Phyton (Austria) 28(1): 55–80.
Khosravi, A.R. 1989. Cytotaxonomy and Phylogeny of the Cruciferae. MSc. Dissertation, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (In Persian).
Khosravi, A.R., Mohsenzadeh, S. & Mummenhoff, K. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of Old World Brassicaceae from Iran based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 37: 106–115.
Mathur, V., Wagenaar, R., Caissard, J.C., Reddy, A.S., Vet L.E., Cortesero, A.M. & Van Dam, N.M. 2013. A novel indirect defence in Brassicacaceae: structure and function of extrafloral nectaries in Brassica juncea. Plant Cell Environment 36(3): 528–541.
Mummenhoff, K., Al-Shehbaz, I.A., Bakker, F.T., Linder, H.P. & Mühlhausen, A. 2005. Phylogeny, morphological evolution, and speciation of endemic Brassicaceae genera in the Cape flora of southern Africa. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 92(3): 400–424.
Olowokudejo, J.D. 1986. The taxonomic importance of nectary variation in the genus Biscutella. Feddes Repertorium 97(11–12): 837–845.
Schweidler, J.H. 1911. Über den Grundtypus und die systematische Bedeutung der Cruciferen-Nectarien I. Beih. Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt 27: 337–390.
Snogerup, S. 1967. Studies in the Aegean flora. IX. Erysimum sect. Cheiranthus. B. Variation and evolution in the small-population system. Opera Botanica 14: 1–86.
Tantawy, M.E., Husein, M.I., Mourad, M.M. & Abdel-Hameed, U.K. 2021. Comparative floral anatomy of some species of Brassicaceae and its taxonomic significance. Adansonia 43(20): 223–234.
Thiers, B. 2022 [Continuously updated]. Index Herbariorum: A Global Directory of Public Herbaria and Associated Staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from: (accessed: 20 Feb. 2022).
Zeraatkar, A. 2017. Systematics of the genus Matthiola R.Br in W.T.Aiton (Brassicaceae) in Iran. PhD thesis, Kharazmi University, Tehran (In Persian with English abstract).
Zeraatkar, A., Ghahremaninejad, F., Khosravi, A.R. & Assadi, M. 202?. Diversity and taxonomic implications of glands and trichomes in the genus Matthiola (Anchonieae; Brassicaceae) in the Flora Iranica area. Adansonia (In Press).
Zeraatkar, A., Ghahremaninejad, F., Al-Shehbaz, I.A., Khosravi, A.R. & Assadi, M. 2016. Matthiola shiraziana (Brassicaceae), a new species from Dena region, Iran. Phytotaxa 282(2): 145–150.
Zhou, T.Y., Lou, L.L., Yang, G., Dorofeyev, V.I. & Al-Shehbaz, I.A. 2001. Matthiola R. Brown in W.T.Aiton. Pp. 145–146. In: Wu, Z.Y. & Raven, P.H. (eds), Flora of China Vol. 8. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, USA.
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Serial Number 63
September 2022
Pages 45-58
  • Receive Date: 26 February 2022
  • Revise Date: 21 April 2022
  • Accept Date: 26 April 2022
  • First Publish Date: 26 July 2022