Oomyceteous flora of ornamental trees of Shiraz County (Iran)

Document Type: Systematics and Biodiversity of Fungi


1 PhD Candidate, Department of Plant Protection, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz 7144165186, Iran

2 Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa*: Prof., Department of Plant Protection, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz 7144165186, Iran (rmostofi@shirazu.ac.ir)


In order to investigate the oomyceteous flora associated with ornamental trees of Shiraz County (Iran), during 2017–18, rhizosphere soil and plant debris of ornamented trees from various parks and green spaces of Shiraz County (including 11 districts) were sampled. Based on morphological, morphometrical and physiological analyses, three Phytophthora species, namely, Ph. cactorum*, Ph. capsici, and Ph. nicotianae*, five Phytopythium species including Pp. litorale, Pp. oedochilum*, Pp. ostracodes, Pp. palingenes*,and Pp. vexans,and 11 Pythium species including Py. aphanidermatum*, Py. catenulatum*, Py. echinulatum, Py. hydnosporum*, Py. irregulare*, Py. kashmirense, Py. megalacanthum, Py. middletonii, Py. nunn, Py. oligandrum,and Py. sylvaticumwere identified. Taxa with asteric were predominant and species with dagger sign were new to Iran mycobiota.



Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

فلور اُاُمیستی درختان زینتی شهرستان شیراز

Authors [Persian]

  • فاطمه سلمانی نژاد 1
  • رضا مستوفی زاده قلمفرسا 2
1 دانشجوی دکتری بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، بخش گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز 7144165186، ایران
2 استاد بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، بخش گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز 7144165186، ایران (rmostofi@shirazu.ac.ir)
Abstract [Persian]

به منظور بررسی فلور اُاُمیستی همراه با درختان زینتی شیراز، طی سال‌های 97-1396 از خاک و بقایای برگ درختان زینتی از بوستان‌ها و فضای سبز شهرستان شیراز (شامل 11 منطقه) نمونه‌برداری صورت گرفت. براساس واکاوی‌های ریخت‌شناختی، ریخت‌سنجی و فیزیولوژیک سه گونه Phytophthoraشامل Ph. cactorum*، Ph. capsici و Ph. nicotianae*، پنج گونه Phytopythium شامل Pp. litorale، Pp. oedochilum*، Pp. ostracodes، Pp. palingenes* و Pp. vexans و
11 گونه Pythium شامل Py. aphanidermatum*، Py. catenulatum*، Py. echinulatum، Py. hydnosporum*،
Py. irregulare*، Py. kashmirense، Py. megalacanthum، Py. middletonii، Py. nunn، Py. oligandrum و
Py. sylvaticum شناسایی شد. آرایه‌های ستاره‌دار فراوان‌ترین آرایه‌های همراه با درختان زینتی شهرستان شیراز بودند. همچنین، آرایه‌های با علامت چلیپا برای میکوبیوتای ایران جدید هستند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • پیتیوم
  • ریخت‌سنجی
  • ریخت‌شناسی
  • فیتوپیتیوم
  • فیتوفترا
Abdul Baten, M.D., Asano, T., Motohashi, K., Ishiguro, Y., Ziaur Rahman, M., Inaba, S., Suga, H. & Kageyama, K. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships among Phytopythium species, and re-evaluation of Phytopythium fagopyri comb. nov. recovered from damped-off buckwheat seedlings in Japan. Mycological Progress 13(4): 1145–1156.

Abdul Baten, M.D., Mingzhu, L., Motohashi, K., Ishiguro, Y., Rahman, M.Z., Suga, H. & Kageyama, K. 2015. Two new species, Phytopythium iriomotense sp. nov. and
P. aichiense sp. nov., isolated from river water and water purification sludge in Japan. Mycological Progress 14: 2–13.

Alilobonab, S., Moravaj, G., Heidari, M. & Ditrisch, C. 2016. Species variation of Cicadellidae leafhoppers in Mashhad green space along with the introduction of predominant species. Proceedings of the 21st. Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 27–30 Aug., Karaj, Iran: 449.

Bala, K., Robideau, G.P., Lèvesque, A., de Cock, A.W.A.M., Adad, Z.G., Lodhi, A.M., Shahzad, S., Ghaffar, A. & Coffey, M.D. 2010. Phytopythium Adad, de Cock, Bala, Robideau, Lodhi & Lèvesque gen. nov. and Phytopythium sindhum Lodhi, Shahzad & Lèvesque sp. nov. Persoonia24: 136–137.

Banihashemi, Z., MacDonald, J.D. & Stite, J. 1992. Combine baiting and ELISA to detect and quantify Phytophthora spp. in container media. Phytopathology82: 1101 (Abstract).

Bolboli, Z. & Mostwofizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, R. 2014. Identification of Phytopythium vexans, the casual agent of ivy root rots in Shiraz. Proceedings of the 21st. Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 23–26 Aug., Urmia, Iran: 864.

Bolboli, Z. & Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, R. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic characteristics of Pythium spp. isolates in cereal fields of Fars province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology51(4): 471–492.

Campbell, W.A. & Hendrix, F.F. 1967a. Pythium and Phytophthora populations in southern forest tree nurseries. Phytopathology 57: 457 (Abstract).

Campbell, W.A. & Hendrix, F.F. 1967b. A new heterothallic Pythium from Southern United States. Mycologia 59: 274–278.

Chenari Bouket, A., Babai-Ahari, A., Arzanlou, M. & Tojo, M. 2016. Morphological and molecular characterization of Phytopythium litorale and Pp. oedochilum from Iran. Nova Hedwigia 102(1–2): 257–270.

de Cock, A.W.A.M., Lodhi, A.M., Rintoul, T.L., Bala, K., Robideau, G.P., Abad, Z.G., Coffey, M.D., Shahzad, S. & Lévesque, C.A. 2015. Phytopythium: molecular phylogeny and systematics. Persoonia 34: 25–39.

Drechsler, C. 1930. Some new species of Pythium. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 20: 298–418.

Ershad, D. 2009. Fungi of Iran. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, 558 pp., Tehran, Iran.

Erwin, D.C. & Ribeiro, O.K. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. APS Press, 592 pp., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Galaaen, R. & Venn, K. 1979. Pythium sylvaticum and other fungi associated with root die-black of 2–0 seedlings of Picea abies in Norway. Meddelelser fra Norsk institutt for Skogforskning 34: 265–280 (In Norwegian).

Gallegly, M.E., ChuanXue, H. & Hong, C. 2008. Phytophthora:Identifying Species by Morphology and DNA Fingerprints. APS Press, 158 pp., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Gunnell, P.S. & Webster, R.K. 1988. Crown and root rot of cultivated wild rice in California caused by Phytophthora erythroseptica sensu lato. Plant Disease 72(10): 909–910.

Hatami, N., Zamanizadeh, H.R. & Aminaii, M.M. 2008. Collection and identification of plant pathogenic fungi in cucumber greenhouse. Proceedings of the 18th. Iran Plant Protection Congress, 24–27 Aug., Hamedan, Iran: 195.

Hulvey, J., Telle, S., Nigrelli, L., Lamour, K. & Thines, M. 2010. Salisapiliaceae- a new family of oomycetes from marsh grass litter of southeastern North America. Persoonia 25: 109–116.

Jeffers, S.N. & Martin, S.B. 1968. Comparision of two media selective for Phytophthora and Pythium species. Plant Disease 70(11): 1035–1043.

Jesus, A.L., Gonçalves, D.R., Rocha, S.C.O., Marano, A.V., Jerônimo, G.H., De Souza,
J.I. & Pires-Zottarelli, C.L.A. 2016. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of three Phytopythium species (Peronosporales, Oomycota) from Brazil. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 37: 117–128.

Khodashenas Roudsari, M., Okhovat, S.M., Mirabolfathi, M. & Kafi, M. 2010. Pathogenicity of three Pythium species isolates on turfgrass in Tehran province. Journal of Plant Protection 24(1): 20–28.

Lévesque, C.A. & de Cock, A.W.A.M. 2004. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Pythium. Mycological Research 108(12): 1363–1383.

Marano, A.V., Jesus, A.L., de Souza, J.I., Jeronimo, G.H., Goncalves, D.R., Boro, M.C., Rocha, S.C.O. & Pires-Zottarelli, C.L.A. 2015. Ecological roles of saprotrophic Peronosporales (Oomycetes, Straminipila) in natural environments. Fungal Ecology 19: 77–88.

Marano, A.V., Jesus, A.L., De Souza, J.I., Leãno, E.M., James, T.Y., Jerônimo, G.H., de Cock, A.W.A.M. & Pires-Zottarelli, C.L.A. 2014. A new combination in Phytopythium: P. kandeliae (Oomycetes, Straminipila). Mycosphere 5: 510–522.

Mirabolfathly, M. & Ershad, D. 1996. Studies on the conifer damping-off in the forest nurseries of northern and central Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 32: 16–26.

Mirabolfathy, M. & Ershad, D. 1997. Occurrence of root and stem rot of Pinus eldarica in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 33: 220–221.

Mirabolfathy, M. & Ershad, D. 1998. Phytophthora root and stem rot of several ornamental plants in central and northern provinces of Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 34: 47–55.

Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, R. 2016. Pythium Species in Iran. Shiraz University Press, 230 pp, Shiraz, Iran.

Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, R. & Banihashemi, Z. 2005. Identification of soil Pythium species in Fars province of Iran. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology 29(A1): 79–87.

Nakagiri, A., Tokumasu, S., Araki, H., Koreeda, S. & Tubaki, K. 1989. Succession of fungi in decomposing mangrove leaves in Japan, pp. 297–301. In: Recent Advances in Microbial Ecology (Hattori, T., Ishida, Y., Maruyama, Y., Morita, R. & Uchida, A., eds). Japan Scientific Society Press, Tokyo, Japan.

Nigrelli, L. & Thines, M. 2013. Tropical Oomycetes in the German bight climate warming or overlooked diversity? Fungal Ecolology 6: 152–160.

Ranjbaran, M., Alizadeh, A. & Safaie, N. 2006. Genetic diversity of Iranian populations of Phytophthora nicotianae using RAPD and ISSR markers. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 42: 619–638.

Salmaninezhad, F. & Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, R. 2017a. Taxonomy, phylogeny and pathogenicity of Pythium species in rice paddy fields of Fars Province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 53(1): 31–50.

Salmaninezhad, F. & Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, R. 2017b. Phylogeny of Phytophthora and Phytopythium species associated with rice in Fars province (Iran). Rostaniha 18(1): 1–15.

Tan, K.H. 1996. Soil Sampling, Preparation and Analysis. Marcel Dekker Inc., 408 pp., New York, USA.

Tuit, J. 1969. Plant Pathological Methods. Burgess Publishing Co., 293 pp., USA.

Uzuhashi, S., Tojo, M., & Kakishima, M. 2010. Phylogeny of the genus Pythium and description of new genera. Mycosience 51: 337–365.

Plaäts-Niterink, A.J. van der. 1981. Monograph of the Genus Pythium. Studies in Mycology. No. 21. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, The Netherlands.

Yang, X., Tyler, B.M. & Hong, C. 2017. An expanded phylogeny for the genus Phytophthora. IMA Fungus 8(2): 355–384.