Some species of fungi associated with declined Persian oak trees in Ilam province with emphasis on new records to mycobiota of Iran

Document Type: Systematics and Biodiversity of Fungi


1 MSc Graduate in Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Prof. of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran

3 Research Assistant Prof., Microbial Biotechnology Department, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education & Extension Organization ‌(AREEO), Karaj, Iran

4 Expert, Forests, Range and Watershed Management Organization, Tehran, Iran


Zagros vegetation zone is one of the most important forest regions in Iran, which consists of a diverse group of arboreal species, especially oaks (Quercus spp.). Ilam province located in west of Iran and in Zagros vegetation zone which has 641000 ha of oak forests that its dominant species is Persian oak (Q. brantii). Oak trees decline is a complicated phenomenon that may result from different kinds of agents such as fungi. In order to study on fungi associated with oak trees decline, different parts of symptomatic Persian oak trees were sampled in different regions of Ilam province during the summer and autumn of 2014–15. Fungal species were identified according to either morphological or molecular characteristics obtained from ITS of ribosomal DNA. Eleven species of eight fungal genera were identified that all of them are reported for the first time as Persian oak-associated species. Also three species including Immersidiscosia eucalypti, Petriella sordida, and Neocamarosporium obiones are reported and fully described here as new records to mycobiota of Iran.


Main Subjects

Article Title [Persian]

برخی قارچ‌های همراه با درختان بلوط ایرانی با علایم زوال در استان ایلام با تاکید بر آرایه‌های جدید برای میکوبیوتای ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • امین علیدادی 1
  • محمد جوان نیکخواه 2
  • مژگان کوثری 3
  • سعدی کرمی 1
  • مرتضی ابراهیم رستاقی 4
1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران
2 استاد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران
3 استادیار پژوهش بخش بیوتکنولوژی میکروبی، پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، سازمان تحقیقات، ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، کرج، ایران
4 کارشناس سازمان جنگل‌ها، مراتع و آبخیزداری کشور، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

ناحیه رویشی زاگرس به عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین مناطق جنگلی ایران، در بردارنده گونه‌های درختی مختلفی به ویژه گونه‌های بلوط
(Quercus spp.) می‌باشد. استان ایلام که در حوزه رویشی زاگرس قرار می‌گیرد دارای جنگل‌های وسیعی بوده که گونه غالب جنگل‌های این ناحیه را بلوط ایرانی (Q. brantii) تشکیل می‌دهد. زوال بلوط پدیده‌ای است که می‌تواند در اثر عوامل مختلفی از جمله قارچ‌ها ایجاد شود. به این ترتیب در این مطالعه،
به منظور جمع‌آوری و بررسی عوامل قارچی همراه با علایم زوال درختان بلوط در استان ایلام، نمونه‌‌برداری از مناطق مختلف جنگلی استان ایلام و از اندام‌های مختلف درختان بلوط طی تابستان و پاییز سال‌های 1393 و 1394 انجام پذیرفت. شناسایی گونه‌های قارچی براساس خصوصیات ریخت‌شناختی و اطلاعات توالی حاصل از نواحی ITS از DNA ریبوزومی صورت پذیرفت. به این ترتیب، تعداد 11 گونه قارچی از هشت جنس مختلف قارچی شناسایی شد. گزارش وجود گونه‌های Immersidiscosia eucalypti، Petriella sordida وNeocamarosporiumobiones  برای فلور قارچی ایران جدید می‌باشد. علاوه‌براین، تمامی گونه‌های قارچی شناسایی شده در این مطالعه، برای نخستین بار از درختان بلوط ایرانی جداسازی و گزارش می‌شوند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • دی.ان.ای ریبوزومی
  • ریخت‌شناسی
  • فیلوژنی
  • مناطق جنگلی
  • ناحیه رویشی زاگرس
Ahmadi, R., Kiadaliri, H., Mataji, A. & Kafaki, S. 2014. Oak forest decline zonation using AHP model and GIS technique in Zagros Forests of Ilam province. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 4: 141–150.

Akilli, S., Ulubaş Serçe, Ç., Katırcıoğlu, Y.Z. & Maden, S. 2013. Does Pythium anandrum contribute to the dieback of sessile oak (Quercus petraea) in Turkey?. Forest Pathology 43: 505–508.

Andersen, B., Sørensen, J.L., Nielsen, K.F., van den Ende, B.G. & de Hoog, S. 2009. A polyphasic approach to the taxonomy of the Alternaria infectoria species-group. Fungal Genetics and Biology 46: 642–656.

Ariyawansa, H.A., Tanaka, K., Thambugala, K.M., Phookamsak, R., Tian, Q., Camporesi, E., Hongsanan, S., Monkai, J., Wanasinghe, D.N., Mapook, A. & Chukeatirote, E. 2014. A molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of the Didymosphaeriaceae (= Montagnulaceae). Fungal Diversity 68: 69–104.

Asgari, B., Zare, R. & Payghami, E. 2004. Hyphomycetous fungal community of barley phylloplane in East Azarbaijan province with emphasis on new taxa for Iranian fungal flora. Rostaniha 5: 171–197.

Aveskamp, M.M., Verkley, G.J., de Gruyter, J., Murace, M.A., Perello, A., Woudenberg, J.H., Groenewald, J.Z. & Crous, P.W. 2009. DNA phylogeny reveals polyphyly of Phoma section Peyronellaea and multiple taxonomic novelties. Mycologia 101: 363–382.

Barron, G.L., Cain, R.F., & Gilman, J.C. 1961. The genus Microascus. Canadian Journal of Botany 39: 1609–1631.

Bruhn, J.N., Wetteroff, J.J., Mihail, J.D., Kabrick, J.M. & Pickens, J.B. 2000. Distribution of Armillaria species in upland Ozark Mountain forests with respect to site, overstory species composition and oak decline. Forest Pathology 30: 43–60.

Cai, L., Jeewon, R. & Hyde, K.D. 2006. Phylogenetic investigations of Sordariaceae based on multiple gene sequences and morphology. Mycological Research 110: 137–150.

Chen, Q., Jiang, J.R., Zhang, G.Z., Cai, L. & Crous, P.W. 2015. Resolving the Phoma enigma. Studies in Mycology 82: 137–217.

Collado, J., Platas, G. & Peláez, F. 1996. Fungal endophytes in leaves, twigs and bark of Quercus ilex from Central Spain. Nova Hedwigia 63:

Crous, P.W., Braun, U., Wingfield, M.J., Wood, A.R., Shin, H.D., Summerell, B.A., Alfenas, A.C., Cumagun, C.J.R. & Groenewald, J.Z. 2009. Phylogeny and taxonomy of obscure genera of microfungi. Persoonia 22: 139.

Crous, P.W., Wingfield, M.J., Guarro, J., Cheewangkoon, R., Van der Bank, M., Swart, W.J., Stchigel, A.M., Cano-Lira, J.F., Roux, J., Madrid, H. & Damm, U. 2013. Fungal planet description sheets: 154–213. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi. Persoonia 31: 188–296.

De Gruyter, J., Woudenberg, J.H.C., Aveskamp, M.M., Verkley, G.J.M., Groenewald, J.Z. & Crous, P.W. 2013. Redisposition of Phoma-like anamorphs in Pleosporales. Studies in Mycology 75: 1–36.

Dickinson, C.H. & Morgan-Jones, G. 1966. The mycoflora associated with Halimione portulacoides: IV. Observations on some species of sphaeropsidales. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 49: 43–55.

Dokhanchi, H., Arzanlou, M. & Babai-Ahari, A. 2014. Identification of the fungal species associated with trunk diseases of stone fruit trees in East and West Azerbaijan provinces. Applied Researches in Plant Protection 2: 30–45.

Domsch, K.H., Gams, W. & Anderson, T.H. 2007. Compendium of Soil Fungi. 2nd Ed., IHW Verlag, Eching bei München, 672 pp.

Ellis, M.B. 1971. Dematiaceous Hypomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute Publication, Kew. Surrey. England, 608 pp.

Ershad, J. 2009. Fungi of Iran. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection Press. Tehran, 531 pp.

Felsenstein, J. 1985. Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783–791.

Ghosta, Y., Ershad, D., Zare, R. & Goltapeh, E.M. 2003. A taxonomic study on Alternaria species in Iran (2). Rostaniha 4: 105–122.

Hajizadeh, A., Amini, J. & Abdollahzadeh, J. 2015. New records of endophytic fungi isolated from oak trees in Kurdistan province (Iran). Rostaniha 16: 109–122.

Hall, T.A. 1999. BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series 41: 95–98.

Henriques, J., Inácio, M.L., Lima, A. & Sousa, E. 2012. New outbreaks of charcoal canker on young cork oak trees in Portugal. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 76: 85–88.

Heredia, G. 1993. Mycoflora associated with green leaves and leaf litter of Quercus germana, Quercus sartorii and Liquidambar styraciflua in a Mexican cloud forest. Cryptogamie Mycologie 14: 171–183.

Hergholi, N., Ghosta, Y., Javan-Nikkhah, M., Campisano, A. & Pancher, M. 2015. New species of endophytic fungi from grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in Iran. Rostaniha 16: 17–35.

Huhndorf, S.M., Miller, A.N. & Fernández, F.A. 2004. Molecular systematics of the Sordariales: the order and the family Lasiosphaeriaceae redefined. Mycologia 96: 368–387.

Jam Ashkezari, S., Fotouhifar, K.B. & Farzaneh, M. 2013. Introduction of some endophytic fungi of common yew (Taxus baccata) in Iran. Rostaniha 14: 184–197.

Jazirehi, M.H. & Ebrahimi Rostaghi, M. 2013. Silviculture in Zagros. University of Tehran Press. 2nd Ed., 560 pp.

Kelley, M.B., Fierke, M.K., & Stephen, F.M. 2009. Identification and distribution of Armillaria species associated with an oak decline event in the Arkansas Ozarks. Forest Pathology 39: 397–404.

Kowalski, T. 1996. Oak decline II. Fungi associated with various types of lesions on stems and branches of young oaks (Quercus robur). Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 5: 51–63.

Lawrence, D.P., Rotondo, F. & Gannibal, P.B. 2016. Biodiversity and taxonomy of the pleomorphic genus Alternaria. Mycological Progress 15: 1–22.

Li, P., Wu, Z., Liu, T. & Wang, Y. 2016. Biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal functions of endophytic fungi associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17: 1541.

Linaldeddu, B.T., Scanu, B., Maddau, L. & Franceschini, A. 2014. Diplodia corticola and Phytophthora cinnamomi: the main pathogens involved in holm oak decline on Caprera Island (Italy). Forest Pathology 44: 191–200.

Luque. J., Parladé, J. & Pera, J. 2000. Pathogenicity of fungi isolated from Quercus suber in Catalonia (NE Spain). Forest Pathology 30: 247–263.

Meklin, T., Haugland, R.A., Reponen, T., Varma, M., Lummus, Z., Bernstein, D., Wymer, L.J. & Vesper, S.J. 2004. Quantitative PCR analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 6: 615–620.

Mirabolfathy, M. 2013. Outbreak of charcoal disease on Quercus spp. and Zelkova carpinifolia trees in forests of Zagros and Alborz mountains in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 49: 77–79.

Mirabolfathy, M., Ju, Y.M., Hsieh, H.M. & Rogers, J.D. 2013. Obolarina persica sp. nov., associated with dying Quercus in Iran. Mycoscience 54: 315–320.


Mulenko, W., Majewski, T. & Ruszkiewicz-Michalska, M. 2008. A Preliminary Checklist of Micromycetes in Poland. W. Szafer Institute of Botany. Polish Academy of Sciences 9: 752.

Ragazzi, A., Moricca, S., Capretti, P., Dellavalle, I. & Turco, E. 2003. Differences in composition of endophytic mycobiota in twigs and leaves of healthy and declining Quercus species in Italy. Forest Pathology 33: 31–38.

Rehner, S.A. & Samuels, G.J. 1995. Molecular systematics of the Hypocreales: a teleomorph gene phylogeny and the status of their anamorphs. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: 816–823.

Rainer, J. & De Hoog, G.S. 2006. Molecular taxonomy and ecology of Pseudallescheria, Petriella and Scedosporium prolificans (Microascaceae) containing opportunistic agents on humans. Mycological Research 110: 151–160.

Sagheb-Talebi, K., Sajedi, T. & Pourhashemi, M. 2014. Forestsof Iran- a treasure from the past, a hope for the future. Springer, Dordrecht Heidelberg, New York, London.

Simmons, E.G. 1998. Multiplex conidium morphology in species of the Ulocladium atrum group. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 1533–1539.

Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. 2013. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 2725–2729.

Tanaka, K., Endo, M., Hirayama, K., Okane, I., Hosoya, T. & Sato, T. 2011. Phylogeny of Discosia and Seimatosporium, and introduction of Adisciso and Immersidiscosia genera nova. Persoonia 26: 85–98.

Thambugala, K.M., Hyde, K.D., Tanaka, K., Tian, Q., Wanasinghe, D.N., Ariyawansa, H.A., Jayasiri, S.C., Boonmee, S., Camporesi, E., Hashimoto, A. & Hirayama, K. 2015. Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Lophiostomataceae, Floricolaceae, and Amorosiaceae fam. nov. Fungal Diversity 74: 199–266.

Thomas, F.M., Blank, R. & Hartmann, G. 2002. Abiotic and biotic factors and their interactions as causes of oak decline in Central Europe. Forest Pathology 32: 277–307.

Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D.G. 1997. The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research 25: 4876–4882.

Verkley, G.J.M., Dukik, K., Renfurm, R., Göker, M. & Stielow, J.B. 2014. Novel genera and species of Coniothyrium-like fungi in Montagnulaceae (Ascomycota). Persoonia 32: 25–51.

Vu, D., Groenewald, M., De Vries, M., Gehrmann, T., Stielow, B., Eberhardt, U., Al-Hatmi, A., Groenewald, J.Z., Cardinali, G., Houbraken, J. & Boekhout, T. 2019. Large-scale generation and analysis of filamentous fungal DNA barcodes boosts coverage for kingdom fungi and reveals thresholds for fungal species and higher taxon delimitation. Studies in Mycology 92: 135–154.

Wanasinghe, D.N., Hyde, K.D., Jeewon, R., Crous, P.W., Wijayawardene, N.N., Jones, E.B.G., Bhat, D.J., Phillips, A.J., Groenewald, J.Z., Dayarathne, M.C., Phukhamsakda, C. & Phukhamsakda, C. 2017. Phylogenetic revision of Camarosporium (Pleosporineae, Dothideomycetes) and allied genera. Studies in Mycology 87: 207–256.

White, T.J., Bruns, T., Lee, S.J.W.T. & Taylor, J.W. 1990. Amplification and Direct Sequencing of Fungal Ribosomal RNA Genes for Phylogenetics. PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications 18: 315–322.

Woudenberg, J.H.C., Groenewald, J.Z., Binder, M. & Crous, P.W. 2013. Alternaria redefined. Studies in Mycology 75: 171 212.

Woudenberg, J.H.C., Groenewald, J.Z., Binder, M. & Crous, P.W. 2013. Alternaria redefined. Studies in Mycology 75: 171–212.

Zhong, S. & Steffenson, B.J. 2001. Virulence and molecular diversity in Cochliobolus sativus. Phytopathology91: 469–476.




































Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Fournier, J., Crous, P.W., Zhang, X., Li, W., Ariyawansa, H.A. & Hyde, K.D. 2014. Neotypification and phylogeny of Kalmusia. Phytotaxa 176: 164–173.